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Beer that is stale or infected and therefore cannot be sold. Often returned by the publican to the brewery.
A receiving tub for wort drained from the mash.
The sludge contained between the false bottom and the real bottom of a straining tank. It consists of rather hard parts of the mash and contains at times considerable amounts of starch.
The addition of water to a mash-in-progress from below so the grains float a bit. Encourages quicker and more thorough mixing.
Under-modified malt has fewer free amino acids and many complex proteins. This type of malt requires an additional step in the mashing process to break down the proteins in the grain. Under-modified malt also has the potential to cause a protein chill haze in the finished beer. Virtually no modern malts are under-modified.